ISBN: 9780323296168
Page Count: 657
Imprint: Elsevier
List Price: $72.99

Principles of Medical Biochemistry, 4th Edition

by Gerhard Meisenberg, PhD and William H. Simmons, PhD
Paperback
ISBN: 9780323296168
Page Count: 657
Imprint: Elsevier
List Price: $72.99
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For nearly 30 years, Principles of Medical Biochemistry has integrated medical biochemistry with molecular genetics, cell biology, and genetics to provide complete yet concise coverage that links biochemistry with clinical medicine. The 4th Edition of this award-winning text by Drs. Gerhard Meisenberg and William H. Simmons has been fully updated with new clinical examples, expanded coverage of recent changes in the field, and many new case studies online. A highly visual format helps readers retain complex information, and USMLE-style questions (in print and online) assist with exam preparation.

    • Just the right amount of detail on biochemistry, cell biology, and genetics – in one easy-to-digest textbook.
    • Full-color illustrations and tables throughout help students master challenging concepts more easily.
    • Online case studies serve as a self-assessment and review tool before exams.
    • Glossary of technical terms, both in print and online.
    • Clinical Boxes and Clinical Content demonstrate the integration of basic sciences and clinical applications, helping readers make connections between the two. New clinical examples have been added throughout the text.
    • Student Consult eBook version included with purchase. This enhanced eBook experience includes access -- on a variety of devices -- to the complete text, images, and references from the book.
  • Part ONE

    PRINCIPLES OF MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND

    FUNCTION 1

    Chapter 1

    INTRODUCTION TO BIOMOLECULES

    Water Is the Solvent of Life

    Water Contains Hydronium Ions and Hydroxyl Ions

    Ionizable Groups Are Characterized by Their pK Values

    The Blood pH is Tightly Regulated

    Acidosis and Alkalosis Are Common in Clinical Practice

    Bonds Are Formed by Reactions between Functional Groups

    Isomeric Forms Are Common in Biomolecules

    Properties of Biomolecules Are Determined by Their Noncovalent

    Interactions

    Triglycerides Consist of Fatty Acids and Glycerol

    Monosaccharides Are Polyalcohols with a Keto Group or an

    Aldehyde Group

    Monosaccharides Form Ring Structures

    Complex Carbohydrates Are Formed by Glycosidic Bonds

    Polypeptides Are Formed from Amino Acids

    Nucleic Acids Are Formed from Nucleotides

    Most Biomolecules Are Polymers

    Summary

    Chapter 2

    INTRODUCTION TO PROTEIN STRUCTURE

    Amino Acids Are Zwitterions

    Amino Acid Side Chains Form Many Noncovalent

    Interactions

    Peptide Bonds and Disulfide Bonds Form the Primary Structure of

    Proteins

    Proteins Can Fold Themselves into Many Shapes

    α-Helix and β-Pleated Sheet Are the Most Common Secondary

    Structures in Proteins

    Globular Proteins Have a Hydrophobic Core

    Proteins Lose Their Biological Activities When Their Higher-Order

    Structure Is Destroyed

    The Solubility of Proteins Depends on pH and Salt

    Concentration

    Proteins Absorb Ultraviolet Radiation

    Proteins Can Be Separated by Their Charge or Their Molecular

    Weight

    Abnormal Protein Aggregates Can Cause Disease

    Neurodegenerative Diseases Are Caused by Protein Aggregates

    Protein Misfolding Can Be Contagious

    Summary

    Chapter 3

    OXYGEN TRANSPORTERS: HEMOGLOBIN AND

    MYOGLOBIN

    The Heme Group Is the Oxygen-Binding Site of Hemoglobin and

    Myoglobin

    Myoglobin Is a Tightly Packed Globular Protein

    Red Blood Cells Are Specialized for Oxygen Transport

    The Hemoglobins Are Tetrameric Proteins

    Oxygenated and Deoxygenated Hemoglobin Have Different

    Quaternary Structures

    Oxygen Binding to Hemoglobin Is Cooperative

    2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate Is a Negative Allosteric Effector of

    Oxygen Binding to Hemoglobin

    Fetal Hemoglobin Has a Higher Oxygen-Binding Affinity than

    Does Adult Hemoglobin

    The Bohr Effect Facilitates Oxygen Delivery

    Most Carbon Dioxide Is Transported as Bicarbonate

    Summary 38

    Chapter 4

    ENZYMATIC REACTIONS 39

    The Equilibrium Constant Describes the Equilibrium of the

    Reaction

    The Free Energy Change Is the Driving Force for Chemical

    Reactions

    The Standard Free Energy Change Determines the Equilibrium

    Enzymes Are Both Powerful and Selective

    The Substrate Must Bind to Its Enzyme before the Reaction Can

    Proceed

    Rate Constants Are Useful for Describing Reaction Rates

    Enzymes Decrease the Free Energy of Activation

    Many Enzymatic Reactions Can Be Described by Michaelis-Menten

    Kinetics

    Km and Vmax Can Be Determined Graphically

    Substrate Half-Life Can Be Determined for First-Order but Not

    Zero-Order Reactions

    Kcat/Km Predicts the Enzyme Activity at Low Substrate

    Concentration

    Allosteric Enzymes Do Not Conform to Michaelis-Menten

    Kinetics

    Enzyme Activity Depends on Temperature and pH

    Different Types of Reversible Enzyme Inhibition Can Be

    Distinguished Kinetically

    Enzymes Stabilize the Transition State

    Chymotrypsin Forms a Transient Covalent Bond during

    Catalysis

    Summary

    Chapter 5

    COENZYMES

    Enzymes Are Classified According to Their Reaction Type

    Adenosine Triphosphate Has Two Energy-Rich Bonds

    ATP Is the Phosphate Donor in Phosphorylation Reactions

    ATP Hydrolysis Drives Endergonic Reactions

    Cells Always Try to Maintain a High Energy Charge

    Dehydrogenase Reactions Require Specialized Coenzymes

    Coenzyme A Activates Organic Acids

    S-Adenosyl Methionine Donates Methyl Groups

    Many Enzymes Require a Metal Ion

    Summary

    Part TWO

    GENETIC INFORMATION: DNA, RNA, AND

    PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    Chapter 6

    DNA, RNA, AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    All Living Organisms Use DNA as Their Genetic Databank

    DNA Contains Four Bases

    DNA Forms a Double Helix

    DNA Can Be Denatured

    DNA Is Supercoiled

    DNA Replication Is Semiconservative

    DNA Is Synthesized by DNA Polymerases

    DNA Polymerases Have Exonuclease Activities

    Unwinding Proteins Present a Single-Stranded Template to the

    DNA Polymerases

    One of the New DNA Strands Is Synthesized Discontinuously

    RNA Plays Key Roles in Gene Expression

    The Σ Subunit Recognizes Promoters

    DNA Is Faithfully Copied into RNA

    Some RNAs Are Chemically Modified after Transcription

    The Genetic Code Defines the Structural Relationship between mRNA and Polypeptide

    Transfer RNA Is the Adapter Molecule in Protein Synthesis

    Amino Acids Are Activated by an Ester Bond with the 3ˈ Terminus

    of the tRNA

    Many Transfer RNAs Recognize More than One Codon

    Ribosomes Are the Workbenches for Protein Synthesis

    The Initiation Complex Brings Together Ribosome, Messenger

    RNA, and Initiator tRNA

    Polypeptides Grow Stepwise from the Amino Terminus to the

    Carboxyl Terminus

    Protein Synthesis Is Energetically Expensive

    Gene Expression Is Tightly Regulated

    A Repressor Protein Regulates Transcription of the lac Operon

    in E. coli

    Anabolic Operons Are Repressed by the End Product of the

    Pathway

    Glucose Regulates the Transcription of Many Catabolic

    Operons

    Transcriptional Regulation Depends on DNA-Binding

    Proteins

    Summary

    Chapter 7

    THE HUMAN GENOME

    Chromatin Consists of DNA and Histones

  • Gerhard Meisenberg, PhD, Course Director Medical Biochemistry, Ross University, Dominica, West Indies and William H. Simmons, PhD, Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Loyola University School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois
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