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cover image - Cardiovascular Physiology,11th Edition
ISBN: 9780323594844
Page Count: 300
Imprint: Elsevier
List Price: $43.99

Cardiovascular Physiology, 11th Edition

by Achilles J. Pappano, PhD and Withrow Gil Wier, PhD


cover image - Cardiovascular Physiology,11th Edition
ISBN: 9780323594844
Page Count: 300
Imprint: Elsevier
List Price: $43.99
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Gain a foundational understanding of cardiovascular physiology and how the cardiovascular system functions in health and disease. Cardiovascular Physiology, a volume in the Mosby Physiology Series, explains the fundamentals of this complex subject in a clear and concise manner, while helping you bridge the gap between normal function and disease with pathophysiology content throughout the book.


    The Circulatory System






    Blood Is Divided into Groups by Antigens Located on Erythrocytes


    Case 1-1


    Cardiac Action Potentials Consist of Several Phases

    The Principal Types of Cardiac Action Potentials Are the Slow and Fast Types

    Ionic Basis of the Resting Potential

    The Fast Response Depends Mainly on Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channels

    Ionic Basis of the Slow Response

    Conduction in Cardiac Fibers Depends on Local Circuit Currents

    Conduction of the Fast Response

    Conduction of the Slow Response

    Cardiac Excitability Depends on the Activation and Inactivation of Specific Currents

    Fast Response

    Slow Response

    Effects of Cycle Length


    Case 2-1


    The Heart Generates Its Own Pacemaking Activity

    Sinoatrial Node

    Ionic Basis of Automaticity

    Overdrive Suppression

    Atrial Conduction

    Atrioventricular Conduction

    Ventricular Conduction

    An Impulse Can Travel Around a Reentry Loop

    Afterdepolarizations Lead to Triggered Activity

    Early Afterdepolarizations

    Delayed Afterdepolarizations

    Electrocardiography Displays the Spread of Cardiac Excitation

    Scalar Electrocardiography

    Dysrhythmias Occur Frequently and Constitute Important Clinical Problems

    Altered Sinoatrial Rhythms

    Atrioventricular Transmission Blocks

    Premature Depolarizations

    Ectopic Tachycardias



    Case 3-1

    Chapter 4 THE CARDIAC PUMP

    The Microscopic and Gross Structures of the Heart

    Cardiac Muscle (myocardial) Cell Morphology

    Structure of the Heart: Atria, Ventricles, and Valves

    The Force of Cardiac Contraction Is Determined by Excitation-Contraction Coupling and the Initial Sarcomere Length of the Myocardial Cells

    Excitation-Contraction Coupling Is Mediated by Calcium

    Mechanics of Cardiac Muscle

    The Sequential Contraction and Relaxation of the Atria and Ventricles Constitute the Cardiac Cycle

    Ventricular Systole

    Echocardiography Reveals Movement of the Ventricular Walls and of the Valves

    The Two Major Heart Sounds Are Produced Mainly by Closure of the Cardiac Valves

    The Pressure-Volume Relationships in the Intact Heart

    Passive or Diastolic Pressure-Volume Relationship

    Active or End-Systolic Pressure-Volume Relationship

    Pressure and Volume during the Cardiac Cycle: The P-V Loop

    Preload and Afterload during the Cardiac Cycle


    The Fick Principle Is Used to Determine Cardiac Output

    Metabolism of ATP and its Relation to Mechanical Function

    Fatty Acid Metabolism

    Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Interrelation between Fatty Acid and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Effects of plasma substrate and insulin levels

    Cardiac O2 Consumption and the Link between Ventricular Function and Cardiac Metabolism


    Case 4-1


    Heart Rate is Controlled Mainly by the Autonomic Nerves

    Parasympathetic Pathways

    Sympathetic Pathways

    Higher Centers Also Influence Cardiac Performance

    Heart Rate Can Be Regulated via the Baroreceptor Reflex

    The Bainbridge Reflex and Atrial Receptors Regulate Heart Rate

    Respiration Induces a Common Cardiac Dysrhythmia

    Activation of the Chemoreceptor Reflex Affects Heart Rate

    Ventricular Receptor Reflexes Play a Minor Role in the Regulation of Heart Rate

    Myocardial Performance Is Regulated by Intrinsic Mechanisms

    The Frank-Starling Mechanism Is an Important Regulator of Myocardial Contraction Force

    Changes in Heart Rate Affect Contractile Force

    Myocardial Performance Is Regulated by Nervous and Humoral Factors

    Nervous Control

    Cardiac Performance Is Also Regulated by Hormonal Substances


    Case 5-1

    Chapter 6 HEMODYNAMICS

    Velocity of the Bloodstream Depends on Blood Flow and Vascular Area

    Blood Flow Depends on the Pressure Gradient

    Relationship Between Pressure and Flow Depends on the Characteristics of the Conduits

    Resistance to Flow

    Resistances in Series and in Parallel

    Flow May Be Laminar or Turbulent

    Shear Stress on the Vessel Wall

    Rheologic Properties of Blood


    Case 6-1


    The Hydraulic Filter Converts Pulsatile Flow to Steady Flow

    Arterial Elasticity Compensates for the Intermittent Flow Delivered by the Heart

    The Arterial Blood Pressure Is Determined by Physical and Physiological Factors

    Mean Arterial Pressure

    Cardiac Output

    Peripheral Resistance

    Pulse Pressure

    Stroke Volume

    Arterial Compliance

    Total Peripheral Resistance and Arterial Diastolic Pressure

    The Pressure Curves Change in Arteries at Different Distances from the Heart

    Blood Pressure Is Measured by a Sphygmomanometer in Human Patients


    Case 7-1


    Functional Anatomy

    Arterioles Are the Stopcocks of the Circulation

    Capillaries Permit the Exchange of Water, Solutes, and Gases

    The Law of Laplace Explains How Capillaries Can Withstand High Intravascular Pressures

    The Endothelium Plays an Active Role in Regulating the Microcirculation

    The Endothelium is at the Center of Flow-Initiated Mechanotransduction

    The Endothelium Plays a Passive Role in Transcapillary Exchange

    Diffusion Is the Most Important Means of Water and Solute Transfer Across the Endothelium

    Diffusion of Lipid-Insoluble Mole

  • Achilles J. Pappano, PhD, Professor; Department of Pharmacology and Calhoun Cardiology Center; University of Connecticut Health Center; Farmington, CT and Withrow Gil Wier, PhD, Professor, University of MD Baltimore, Dept. of Physiology, Baltimore, Maryland
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