Navigating Problem Based Learning
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This title is directed primarily towards health care professionals outside of the United States. Many medical and health professional schools have replaced their traditional curriculum with problem based learning, or a derivative. This book is designed to provide a comprehensive guide and resource for students in the early years of these courses, and will assist them to adapt their learning style to working with others in small groups. The book explains the differences between PBL and traditional learning, the aims and essential elements of PBL, and provides the keys for successful group discussion. Students are shown how to define the learning issues and how to construct their own mechanisms for each case they study, before moving on to the aims and tools commonly used in assessment, and tips for increasing scores in examinations. The book will also assist tutors to design cases.
- Examples of PBL cases, assessment questions, mechanisms and flow diagrams
- Keys for successful group discussion, tips for self-directed learning and for passing examinations.
- Instruction for using reflective journals and other resources.
About This Book
Why Did I write This Book?
Who Should Read This Book?
How This Book Is Organized
PART I Introduction to Problem-Based Learning
1. Problem-Based Learning Overview
Why Do We Do Problem-Based Learning?
How Is Problem-Based Learning Different from What I Used to Do?
Defining Problem-Based Learning
What Are the Aims of Problem-Based Learning?
What Are the Roles of Tutors in Problem-Based Learning?
2. Problem-Based Learning Cases
Essential Elements in a Problem-Based Learning Case
Educational Tasks in Problem-Based Learning Templates
What Makes a Good Problem-Based Learning Case?
3. Problem-Based Learning Tutorials
Steps in Problem-Based Learning Tutorials
Student-Centered Approach and Collaborative Learning
Qualities of a Successful Group
Keys for Successful Group Discussion
Action Verbs and Group Dynamics
Typical Problems in Problem-Based Learning Tutorials
PART II How to Foster Your Study Skills in a Problem-Based Learning Course?
4. Self-Directed Learning
What Does Self-Directed Learning Mean?
Self-Directed Learning vs Spoon Feeding Approach
Self-Directed Learning and Problem-Based Learning Curriculum
Research and Self-Directed Learning
5. Learning Issues
Defining the Learning Issues of a Problem-Based Learning Course
Approaches for Collection of Information
Construction of Information
6. Construction of Mechanisms and Flow Diagrams
Backward versus Forward Mechanisms
Uses of Mechanisms in Tutorial 1 and Tutorial 2
Use of Mechanisms and Flow Diagrams in Assessment
Keys for Successful Writing of Mechanisms
7. Effective Use of Recourses
Resources Used in Problem-Based Learning Courses
Searching For Scientific Reviews
Effective Use of Medical Dictionaries
Effective Use of Textbooks
Effective use of Online Resources and Computer-Aided Learning Programs
8. Keys to Foster Your Study Skills
First Things First
Discover the Power of Self-Motivation
Enhance Your Concentration
Monitor Your Progress
Ask For Help When Needed
Ask For Feedback
Learn How to Manage Your Stress
9. Portfolio and Reflective Journals
What is a portfolio?
Use of a Portfolio in a Problem-Based Learning
Use of Reflective Journals to Foster Your Skills
PART III Assessment in Problem-Based Learning
10. Assessment Overview
Aims of Assessment
Formative versus Summative Assessment
Tools Used in Assessment in Problem-Based Learning Courses
11. Passing Examinations in a Problem-Based Learning
Revision before Examinations
Common Mistakes in the Way Students Answers Written Examinations
Tips for Success
PART IV Becoming a Medical/Health Professional Student: Keys for Success
12. Success Is a Journey
Success is Not a Destination
Believing In Your Abilities to Succeed
Turning Your Dreams into Reality
13. Attitudes That Foster Your Success
Get Rid of Your Pride
Cultivate Constructive Discontent
Escape from Habits
Sow Seeds that Benefit Others
14. Growth is a Change
Concentrate on One Goal at a Time
Concentrate on Continual Improvement
Learn How to Deal With Stress
APPENDIX A. Examples of a PBL Case
APPENDIX B. Examples of Mechanisms
APPENDIX C. Examples of PBL Questions
Samy Azer, MB, BCh, Msc, Med, PhD(Syd), Med(NSW), FACG, MPH(NSW), Senior Lecturer, Medical Education, Faculty Medicine Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia; Visiting Professor of Medical Education, University of Toyama, Japan